Simple Ways to Improve Your Bar Essays

A big complaint about essays: “Essays are so freaking subjective!”

Good, let’s use the subjectivity to your advantage. We’re going to take advantage of the impatience of a human who has thousands of shitty essays to read.

Sure, the MBE is more “objective.” There’s only one right answer on the MBE. But it depends on your interpretation of the question, the hypo, and most important, the answer choices. Yes because X? Yes because Y? Where’s the option for “yes because Z”?! That’s a question for another day.

Either way, it’s tempting to shy away from the essays. Essays force you to work your “origination muscle.” You have to come up with words instead of letters to fill in.

Is that a symptom of the age of social media? Most of our online activity is scrolling through endless feeds, reading snippets, and divvying up upvotes and downvotes. There’s so much to consume.

Consuming. That’s all we have the patience for. We rarely create something that is ours.

That’s the same for the graders who will read your essays because, well, they are modern-day humans.

“Whoa, wait, they’re not lizard people who landed on Earth to ruin my life?” That’s right, friend. Let’s work your origination muscle now so that you’re not lifting heavy on exam day.

Well, which parts should you work on? There are three key parts to writing essays:

  1. Knowledge of issues
  2. Knowledge of rules
  3. Making it understandable

Most of us focus on the second part. Yes, that is important. But if you try to answer an essay question with just knowledge of rules… I think you’ll find yourself torturing the rules to try to make them fit somewhere, anywhere.

No need to belabor this point again. Let’s address the other two parts…


The bar exam actually only tests you within a finite universe of issues and rules. So it would benefit you to be aware of what those issues and sub-issues are (nuances, exceptions, defenses, etc.).

In fact, this means that you can systematically CHECK through issues to ensure that you hit all the relevant ones, rather than randomly issue “spotting” and possibly missing some issues.

Superb. Save that link, and apply it to your essays.


We went to law school because we’re at least somewhat good writers. (Right?) God, “writer” makes me sound like some kind of Starbucks dweller.

The more I think about this, though, the more important writing skill seems to be on the bar essays. It’s not something to ignore. But you can get better.

A great way to make your writing “better” in the context of the bar exam would be to make it easier to understand.

The easier something is to understand, the more compelling it will be to the reader. To go further, the easier you are to understand, the more intelligent someone will think you are (source). Conversely, the more complicated you sound, the less intelligent someone will think you are (source, PDF).

Plain English for Lawyers is moderately suitable for assisting the reduction of verbiage in your prose… Come on, you knew that one was coming.

If this is too obvious and common sense to you, forgive me.

But there are people who want to hear this. People who are stuck and wondering why their essays are not doing as well as they want even though they are hitting the rules and falling in love with characters named P and D.

Here are some suggestions that bar takers could use to improve the clarity of their bar essays:

  • Good lord, please, no huge walls of text: Break it up into paragraphs like you learned in 5th grade. Don’t kid yourself into thinking anyone (let alone an underpaid grader) is going to read a page with no paragraph breaks. You’re barely hanging onto this article yourself.
  • To build off the above, separate the R and A. Good time to use paragraph breaks. I often see rule and application commingled or written out of order… which isn’t wrong in itself, but we want to make this easier for the grader. It’s going to be formulaic: Issue heading-R-A-C. Sometimes, the “A” includes multiple smaller IRACs: I-R-[ira-ira-ira]-C.
Example of bad IRAC
Excerpt from my failed essay where I concluded ahead of time
  • Transition words help take a reader through your reasoning: here, in this case, in other words, more specifically, that is, therefore, hence, thus, in addition, furthermore, rather, according to, etc. BTW, “because” is my favorite connecting word because it can be psychologically persuasive. Use it in your analysis.
  • Punctuation is helpful! But probably avoid exclamation marks in an essay unless you’re quoting someone from the hypo.
  • And as alluded to above, don’t sound like a thesaurus (or science journal or politician). I’m not saying to keep the answer itself short if you have more to talk about. Instead, write with enough complexity as is appropriate, but don’t go overboard. Simple sentence structures. Assume your grader understands at a 5th-grade level. The grader might read your essay while waiting for the light to turn green or sitting on the toilet (true stories).

(BTW, I aim to keep all my emails and blog articles at 6th-grade level or below. Try it out for yourself.)

If this is common sense to you, keep doing what you’re doing. Otherwise…

We can boil it down to this:

If you want to improve your essays on the bar exam, good writing may be more important than you think. But it doesn’t have to be a big ordeal. It could be as simple as reserving a few minutes at the end of a session to double check that your answers read well. One person told me she literally writes “IRAC” on top of her paper. Do whatever works for you.

More about the “test of empathy” in my interview snippet here.

That’s how you take advantage of the subjectivity of essays—by remembering that you’re writing for a person on the other end.

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