For the 2024 California Bar Exam and Uniform Bar Exam (UBE)

Go from blank page to finished essay on the bar exam

Methodically (not randomly) “spot” relevant issues to rack up points with Approsheets essay attack checklists and flowcharts — even if you have no idea where to start writing

Do you know how to approach essays and spot issues (reliably)?

I loved how you framed approaching the essays as finding fact triggers. That was different than how Barbri suggested, and I could see a big improvement in my approach to the essays after thinking of them in that way. I also liked your flowcharts.”

“I was always missing issues . . . I wanted to create a system for finding the issue instead of hopefully spotting them. I bought the Approsheets and the checklists you have are amazing. Thank you”

“I really wasn’t pulling together essays until after I spent a lot of time specifically with your Approsheets. . . . I really saw myself picking up a lot more issues that way and scoring a lot higher. After that, I think that’s when I finally, finally started to feel like there’s a chance I was gonna pull it off.”

What if you had roadmaps to simplify how to approach essays for each subjectsaving time during bar prep and gaining an unfair (but totally legal) advantage over others randomly pulling issues on the exam?


You don’t need to be a creative writer (or even a good writer) to pass the essays. Just make it mechanical, robotic, and systematic:

Bar takers who added Approsheets to their study arsenal were able to put those essays (and the bar exam) behind them — for good:

Ever have “Blank Page Syndrome”?

In front of you, a blank canvas stares back, ready to be filled but only reflecting a harsh stillness.

The cursor blinks at you, urging you for your next order.

Cold sweat squeezes out of pores you didn’t even realize you had on your body. 


You decide to hit the books and videos again. Maybe you just need to know more… Maybe you’ll get ’em next time…

You’re mostly grasping the material, but then when you take a practice exam it’s like everything you know is out the window. If you can't start (or finish) an essay, you may be struggling with this Blank Page Syndrome.

WTF? Why didn’t it work?

If all you did was memorize some rule as a fact, your body has no clue what it needs to do, because...

  1. Knowing something conceptually is different from knowing how to use it.
  2. You treated everything the same. You tried to juggle everything in your memory without considering whether a rule (or issue) is even important enough to focus on.
  3. You neglected to learn the corresponding issues. Like a joke you wanted to force into a conversation, you couldn’t wait to use the rules and concepts you learned. But you didn’t know when they were relevant or appropriate to bring up, so you tried to put them somewhere… anywhere.

Even if you know all the law, you still need to present all the relevant issues.

Two biggest fears and obsessions of a bar taker: lectures and memorization. But notice that these heavily focus on the RULES, the "black letter law."

That's all fine and dandy. Rules are important. But how are you going to know where to put down what you memorized?

“I need to know all the law first!”

What were those three years of law school for? Never mind.

There’s this strange concern floating around... A concern that you need to know it all, or else you won’t be prepared to write that essay. The thought that all you need to do well in practice and the bar exam itself is to "get your ducks in a row first"…

So you sit there, fold your arms, and wait for videos and words to osmosis into your brain. Maybe your soulmate will fall out of the sky, too. And then when you finally flip open that bar essay after weeks of becoming a know-it-all…

You end up staring at a blank page.

Write like a bar taker. Not like a lawyer.

No doubt the essays are the bane of bar takers' existence. It can feel overwhelming to have to come up with words and create something under pressure.

If writing like in law school is still stuck in your head, you've been out of school for years, or you just aren't used to that kind of writing, essay questions on the bar exam can be tough to figure out.

Like with a new cat you just met, maybe you've noticed that they need a different approach because they’re a bit different from law school essays or real-life briefs.

Somehow you find yourself brain dumping a soup of words, anything you remember about the subject… silently hoping for a miracle (and screaming internally).

(Ernest Hemingway said that “the first draft of anything is shit,” but this is ridiculous!)

But what gets you that passing score? How do you organize your answer? Where do you begin, and what do you write?

The real question: What really grabs the grader's attention?


Issues are where it all begins.

No issues = no IRAC = no points. 

You may think you know the rules, but you still struggle to write the essay because you don't know the corresponding issues.

You want to score high on the essays, but the grading process is so subjective, and there are often no guidelines as to what will earn you points or how much time should be spent writing different parts of your paper—making essays like taking shots in the dark.

Clear issues make it EASY for the grader to check it off as they skim your essay. This makes the grading process more objective and more in your favor.


Having the right issues can make or break your essay. They're your anchors for the ship you're going to ride to fish points out of the water.


This is super counterintuitive to bar takers! In law school, they were taught that they need to write a giant analysis and look at all the angles. In fact, some bar tutors still advocate for this approach.

I don't disagree.


But essays on the bar exam are like an inverted pyramid, where issues are the most important, then the rules, then the application. (No deep “analysis” required except where appropriate (to discuss opposing legal theories or narrow calls of the question), not as a default!)

So what should you do if you’re struggling with bar essays?

The best thing is not to throw them out randomly, hopefully “spotting” them...

But rather, systematically “check” for them using a finite list of issues.

It can even become a “robotic” process where you stop panicking and you don’t even have to think about it (much)...

Explain like I’m five... how to “issue spot”

Ask a law student how to “spot issues” and see how long it takes to get a coherent answer.

Issue spotting” has no process to it, and therefore is a less reliable method of getting the points you deserve on the essays. Spotting implies that “you’ll know it when you see it.”

Instead, I recommend checking for issues instead of spotting issues. Here's a step-by-step, issue-by-issue walkthrough:

This robotic, routine approach is more reliable than randomly spotting issues. It'll help you develop muscle memory—a bar intuition—so that when you see similar fact patterns later, you'll know what to do. This will make sure that you cover what they're trying to test you on, and not miss anything important.

You might get tired of discussing the same issues over and over. But that's actually a good thing!

There’s a reason they’re called fact patterns. There are issue patterns too.

And once you see these patterns, it’ll be as if the Matrix opened up to you... giving you an unfair (but totally legal) advantage on your bar exam essays.

That’s where Approsheets come into play...


Approsheets are roadmaps for navigating (or starting) the essays, in 2 pages per subject.

These essay approach sheets include checklists and flowcharts that guide you through structuring your essay or outline in a sequential manner, focusing on the most frequently tested issues.

It’s like having your own personal tutor whispering into an earpiece as you set up the essay:

*radio crackle* Psst... If you see X fact, talk about Y issue.

One major pitfall of answering an essay is discussing some issues but not others. A checklist or flowchart approach ensures that you don’t forget the related issues — to not have them come to you after the exam.

What do you get with Approsheets?

Immediate lifetime access and updates to downloadable PDF files for these subjects:

  • CA
  • UBE
  • Business Associations (Agency, Partnerships, Corporations)
  • Civil Procedure
  • CA Community Property

(+ summary of characterization of property)

  • Constitutional Law – includes 2022 Kennedy/Lemon update
  • Contracts
  • Criminal Law
  • Criminal Procedure

(+ 4th Amendment supplement)

  • Evidence (FRE and CA)

(+ Prop 8 supplement)

  • Professional Responsibility (ABA and CA)

(+ ABA/CA distinction table supplement)

  • Real Property
  • Remedies

(+ injunctive remedies supplement)

  • Torts
  • Wills & Trusts
  • Welcome guide

If you're studying for a state that isn't California or a UBE jurisdiction, please review the subjects below and select the closest version.

  • Business Associations (Agency, Partnerships, Corporations)
  • Civil Procedure (FRCP)
  • Conflict of Laws
  • Constitutional Law – includes 2022 Kennedy/Lemon update
  • Contracts
  • Criminal Law
  • Criminal Procedure

(+ 4th Amendment supplement)

  • Evidence (FRE)
  • Family Law
  • Professional Responsibility (ABA)
  • Real Property
  • Remedies

(+ injunctive remedies supplement)

  • Secured Transactions
  • Torts
  • Trusts & Estates (Wills)
  • Welcome guide

Some of these are not tested on the UBE, but non-UBE jurisdictions may benefit from the extra subjects.

Plus, bonuses:

Bonus 1: Performance Test Toolkit: HAQs for Navigating the PTs ($50 value)

  • Step-by-step approach to solving PTs
  • Templates and examples
  • Where to find plenty of PTs/MPTs to practice
  • Avoiding the common trap of running out of time 
  • And more...

Bonus 2: Pocket Guide for Your Bar Prep: 17 Strategies to Get Un-stuck and Un-frustrated by the Bar Exam ($50 value)

[Included only with the Magicsheets + Approsheets bundle]

  • What did I do wrong my first bar attempt (and what did I do my second time)?
  • What if you can’t find time to practice?
  • When do you memorize the overwhelming amount of law & what do you prioritize?
  • And more...

Bonus 3: MBE Subject Matter Breakdowns and Charts ($50 value)

[Included with Magicsheets or the Magicsheets + Approsheets Bundle]

  • What are the 3 top topics you MUST know if you want to succeed on the MBE?
  • Identify other highly tested areas (sorted by percentages and illustrated in pie charts)
  • Identify areas that are low priority (so you can feel relieved if you want to focus on other areas)

Bonus 4: IRAC/CRAC Example Vault ($27 value)

  • What does proper IRAC or CRAC look like?
  • Two examples of how your essay answers can look as you work with Approsheets to identify issues and Magicsheets to recite corresponding rules
  • Includes an annotated version that explains relevant components

Youll also get signed up for weekly support emails to keep you on track until the bar exam:

Strategy Saturdays: You’ll get a coaching email handcrafted by your own bar exam strategist (me). These will discuss substantive strategies, insights, specific how-tos, mindset, and motivation.

MBE Q&A of the Week: You’ll get a question to try and visual explanations to learn from every Wednesday.

Fire-up Fridays: You’ll get a case study (you guessed it, every Friday) where I feature a bar exam passer and break down the approaches they used to overcome their challenges.

Why use Approsheets?

Know where to start on an essay question (overarching roadmaps of important issues and sub-issues to seed IRACs)

Rack up hidden points (reminders to discuss easily missed related issues, including exceptions and defenses)

Use a checklist approach to make sure you include relevant issues and sub-issues in your outline or answer so you don’t miss out on points

If you’re a visual learner, each subject comes with a one-page flowchart to visualize the checklist on the exam (literally follow the arrows to see what issues to consider next)

Issues are king! Focus not just on rules but also issues

Let fact patterns and issue patterns become second nature (issues to discuss are grouped together depending on the fact pattern)

Lightweight review material — two pages per subject for an efficient overview

Calm your nerves so you can attack your essays with confidence even under pressure

You don’t even have to be sure if you want them right now:

Backed by a 30-day satisfaction policy

If you don’t find Approsheets helpful, just email me back within 30 days of purchase for a full refund. I’ll even eat the processing fees.

Ready to get Approsheets?

Even if you know all the law, you still need to present all the right ones in an essay.

These short checklists and flowcharts are designed to guide you through structuring your essays and outlines in a sequential manner.

If essays are the bane of your existence, don’t just wing them or hope for a miracle... Make them predictable.

Two options:


All Subjects


Best option if you just want issue checklists and flowcharts for CA essays or UBE MEEs

MBE Subjects
Essay Subjects
Bonus 1: PT Toolkit ($50 value)